How to turn on the folder list in Outlook 2010
Scroll to the bottom to your navigation buttons and right click. You'll have the option to choose which icons are viewable here. Check them all or go to defaults. Close that box and click on the yellow folder. That should do it.
There are several views in outlook 2010 and you can reset them. Go to the view tab across the top. Your first group you should have options to reset the view. These options are dynamic bases on what screen you're in so you may have to go into messages or calendar to reset the various views.
You'll know when you're in the folder list view whe the very top folder will be your emaill address or name of your exchange account.